COPD

COPD - CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE


INTRODUCTION

  • COPD is characterised by airflow limitation that not fully reversible.

  • abnormal inflammatory response of the lungs to noxious particle or gases.

COPD IS MOSTLY OCCURE DUE TO TWO CONDITIONS

  1. EMPHYSEMA

  2. CHRONIC BRONCHITIS


1. EMPHYSEMA - Emphysema is a condition in which the alveoli at the end of the smallest air passages (bronchioles) of the lungs are destroyed as a result of damaging exposure to cigarette smoke and other irritating gases and particulate matter.

abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles.



2. CHRONIC BHRONCHITIS - Chronic bronchitis is inflammation of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs. It's characterized by daily cough and mucus (sputum) production.

OTHER MOST IMPORTANT CAUSE IS CIGAR SMOKE.

n the vast majority of people with COPD, the lung damage that leads to COPD is caused by long-term cigarette smoking. But there are likely other factors at play in the development of COPD, such as a genetic susceptibility to the disease, because not all smokers develop COPD.






SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • Shortness of breath, especially during physical activities

  • Wheezing

  • Chest tightness

  • A chronic cough that may produce mucus (sputum) that may be clear, white, yellow or greenish

  • Frequent respiratory infections

  • Lack of energy

  • weight loss

RISK FACTOR

  • Exposure to tobacco smoke The most significant risk factor for COPD is long-term cigarette smoking. The more years you smoke and the more packs you smoke, the greater your risk. Pipe smokers, cigar smokers and marijuana smokers also may be at risk, as well as people exposed to large amounts of secondhand smoke.

  • People with asthma Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, may be a risk factor for developing COPD. The combination of asthma and smoking increases the risk of COPD even more.

  • Occupational exposure to dusts and chemicals Long-term exposure to chemical fumes, vapors and dusts in the workplace can irritate and inflame your lungs.

  • Exposure to fumes from burning fuel In the developing world, people exposed to fumes from burning fuel for cooking and heating in poorly ventilated homes are at higher risk of developing COPD.

  • Genetics The uncommon genetic disorder alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the cause of some cases of COPD. Other genetic factors likely make certain smokers more susceptible to the disease.

COMPLICATION

  • Respiratory infections People with COPD are more likely to catch colds, the flu and pneumonia. Any respiratory infection can make it much more difficult to breathe and could cause further damage to lung tissue.

  • Heart problems For reasons that aren't fully understood, COPD can increase your risk of heart disease, including heart attack

  • Lung cancer People with COPD have a higher risk of developing lung cancer.

  • High blood pressure COPD may cause high blood pressure in the arteries that bring blood to your lungs (pulmonary hypertension).

DIAGNOSIS AND INVESTIGATIONS

  • Lung (pulmonary) function tests

  • Chest x-ray : x-ray can show emphysema .it is also helpful for rule out other disease.

  • Laboratory tests Lab tests aren't used to diagnose COPD, but they may be used to determine the cause of your symptoms or rule out other conditions. For example, lab tests may be used to determine if you have the genetic disorder alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, which may be the cause of COPD in some people. This test may be done if you have a family history of COPD and develop COPD at a young age.

  • CT scan

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

  • Bryonia alba

  • Phosphorus

  • Sulphur

  • Calcarea Carb.