ASTHMA

INTRODUCTION

AIRFLOW OBSTRUCTION CHARACTERISED BY, BRONCHIAL INFLAMMATION WITH PROMINANT EOSINOPHIL INFILTRATION DUE TO BRONCHIAL HYPER-REACTIVITY.

  • This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, a whistling sound (wheezing) when you breathe out and shortness of breath.

CLASSIFICATION ; 1. Extrinsic asthma - excessive IgE present

2. Intrinsic asthma - IgE absent

3. mixed forms


CAUSE / ASTHMA TRIGGERS.

  • Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoke

  • Certain medications, including beta blockers, aspirin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve)

  • Strong emotions and stress

  • Sulfites and preservatives added to some types of foods and beverages, including shrimp, dried fruit, processed potatoes, beer and wine

  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acids back up into your throat

  • Airborne allergens, such as pollen, dust mites, mold spores, pet dander or particles of cockroach waste

  • Respiratory infections, such as the common cold

  • exercise and physical activity.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • Shortness of breath

  • Chest tightness or pain

  • Wheezing when exhaling, which is a common sign of asthma in children

  • Trouble sleeping caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing

  • Coughing or wheezing attacks that are worsened by a respiratory virus, such as a cold or the flu.

  • Increasing difficulty breathing, as measured with a device used to check how well your lungs are working (peak flow meter)

RISK FACTOR

  • Having a blood relative with asthma, such as a parent or sibling

  • Having another allergic condition, such as atopic dermatitis — which causes red, itchy skin — or hay fever — which causes a runny nose, congestion and itchy eyes

  • Being overweight

  • Being a smoker

  • Exposure to secondhand smoke

  • Exposure to exhaust fumes or other types of pollution

  • Exposure to occupational triggers, such as chemicals used in farming, hairdressing and manufacturing.

DIAGNOSIS AND INVESTIGATION

  • Spirometry This test estimates the narrowing of your bronchial tubes by checking how much air you can exhale after a deep breath and how fast you can breathe out.

  • Peak flow A peak flow meter is a simple device that measures how hard you can breathe out. Lower than usual peak flow readings are a sign that your lungs may not be working as well and that your asthma may be getting worse. Your doctor will give you instructions on how to track and deal with low peak flow readings.

  • Imaging tests A chest X-ray can help identify any structural abnormalities or diseases (such as infection) that can cause or aggravate breathing problems.

  • Sputum eosinophils This test looks for certain white blood cells (eosinophils) in the mixture of saliva and mucus (sputum) you discharge during coughing. Eosinophils are present when symptoms develop and become visible when stained with a rose-colored dye.

  • Nitric oxide test This test measures the amount of the gas nitric oxide in your breath. When your airways are inflamed — a sign of asthma — you may have higher than normal nitric oxide levels. This test isn't widely available.

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS


  • Arsenic Album - asthma with anxiety

  • Ipecac – asthma with nausea and vomiting

  • Antim Tart – asthmatic cough with rattling in chest

  • Nux Vomica – asthma with gastric disturbance

  • Carbo Veg - asthma with bluish face