DIABETES MELLITUS

INTRODUCTION


  • Diabetes mellitus refers to a group of diseases that result in too much sugar in the blood. Glucose is vital to your health because it's an important source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and tissues. It's also your brain's main source of fuel.

  • The underlying cause of diabetes varies by type. But, no matter what type of diabetes you have, it can lead to excess sugar in your blood. Too much sugar in your blood can lead to serious health problems.

  • Chronic diabetes conditions include type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Potentially reversible diabetes conditions include prediabetes — when your blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes — and gestational diabetes, which occurs during pregnancy but may resolve after the baby is delivered.

TYPES AND CAUSES


TYPE 1 DIABETES

  • The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. What is known is that your immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria or viruses — attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Instead of being transported into your cells, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

  • Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, though exactly what those factors are is still unclear. Weight is not believed to be a factor in type 1 diabetes.

TYPE 2 DIABETES

  • In prediabetes — which can lead to type 2 diabetes — and in type 2 diabetes, your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy, sugar builds up in your bloodstream.

  • Exactly why this happens is uncertain, although it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes too. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.

GESTATIONAL DIABETES

  • During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin.

  • Normally, your pancreas responds by producing enough extra insulin to overcome this resistance. But sometimes your pancreas can't keep up. When this happens, too little glucose gets into your cells and too much stays in your blood, resulting in gestational diabetes.

SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • Increased thirst

  • Frequent urination

  • Extreme hunger

  • Unexplained weight loss

  • Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin)

  • Fatigue

  • Irritability

  • Blurred vision

  • Slow-healing sores

COMPLICATION

  • Cardiovascular disease: Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain (angina), heart attack, stroke and narrowing of arteries (atherosclerosis). If you have diabetes, you're more likely to have heart disease or stroke.

  • Nerve damage (neuropathy): Excess sugar can injure the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish your nerves, especially in your legs. This can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Left untreated, you could lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs. Damage to the nerves related to digestion can cause problems with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or constipation. For men, it may lead to erectile dysfunction.

  • Kidney damage (nephropathy): The kidneys contain millions of tiny blood vessel clusters (glomeruli) that filter waste from your blood. Diabetes can damage this delicate filtering system. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage kidney disease, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

  • Eye damage (retinopathy): Diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), potentially leading to blindness. Diabetes also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.

  • Foot damage: Nerve damage in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increases the risk of various foot complications. Left untreated, cuts and blisters can develop serious infections, which often heal poorly. These infections may ultimately require toe, foot or leg amputation.

  • Skin conditions: Diabetes may leave you more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.

  • Hearing impairment: Hearing problems are more common in people with diabetes.

  • Alzheimer's disease: Type 2 diabetes may increase the risk of dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease. The poorer your blood sugar control, the greater the risk appears to be. Although there are theories as to how these disorders might be connected, none has yet been proved.

  • Depression: Depression symptoms are common in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Depression can affect diabetes management.

INVESTIGATIONS


  • Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test: This blood test, which doesn't require fasting, indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It measures the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.

  • The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you'll have with sugar attached. An A1C level of 6.5 percent or higher on two separate tests indicates that you have diabetes. An A1C between 5.7 and 6.4 percent indicates prediabetes. Below 5.7 is considered normal.

  • Random blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken at a random time. Regardless of when you last ate, a random blood sugar level of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 11.1 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) — or higher suggests diabetes.

  • Fasting blood sugar test. A blood sample will be taken after an overnight fast. A fasting blood sugar level less than 100 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L) is normal. A fasting blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes. If it's 126 mg/dL (7 mmol/L) or higher on two separate tests, you have diabetes.

  • Oral glucose tolerance test. For this test, you fast overnight, and the fasting blood sugar level is measured. Then you drink a sugary liquid, and blood sugar levels are tested periodically for the next two hours. A blood sugar level less than 140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L) is normal. A reading of more than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L) after two hours indicates diabetes. A reading between 140 and 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L and 11.0 mmol/L) indicates prediabetes.

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

  • Syzygium Jambolanum: Top Homeopathic medicines for reducing sugar levels

Syzygium Jambolanum is among the best natural Homeopathic remedies for the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. It acts promptly and efficiently in decreasing the sugar levels. Excessive thirst and excessive urination are always present in the patient. Homeopathic medicine Syzygium Jambolanum also gives wonderful results in treatment of long-standing ulcers in a diabetic patient.

  • Abroma Augusta : One of the  Best Homeopathic medicines for Diabetes with loss of flesh and weakness

Abroma Augusta is the top natural Homeopathic medicine to treat Diabetes Mellitus. Its use is highly recommended in those patients who are losing flesh and suffer from extreme weakness due to Diabetes Mellitus. The patients who can greatly benefit from this Homeopathic medicine have an increased thirst with dryness of mouth. They also have an increased appetite and the urination is very frequent day and night. Excessive weakness is felt after urination. Homeopathic medicine Abroma Augusta is also of great help in treating sleeplessness in a person with Diabetes. Another sphere in which this Homeopathic remedy yields good results is skin complaints like boils and carbuncles in a diabetic patient. Burning sensation in the whole body is a prominent general symptom that can be found in persons requiring Abroma Augusta.

  • Phosphorus- One of the best Homeopathic medicines for Diabetes with Weakness in Vision

Phosphorus is a natural Homeopathic medicine of great help for treating Diabetes Mellitus, though its use depends completely on the constitutional symptoms of the patient.  Homeopathic medicine Phosphorus is a remedy of great help for weakness of vision in a diabetic patient.

  • Phosphoric Acid: One of the Homeopathic medicines for Diabetes with extreme weakness

Phosphoric Acid is an excellent natural Homeopathic remedy for extreme weakness, either mental or physical, in a diabetic patient. Such patients feel exhausted all the time. They have a weak memory and are forgetful. Some sort of history of grief may be found in patients requiring this Homeopathic medicine. For numbness of feet in patients of Diabetes Mellitus, Phosphoric Acid is the best Homeopathic remedy.

  • Gymnema Sylvestre: Homeopathic Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus with weight loss

Gymnema Sylvestre is a natural Homeopathic medicine of great help for patients of Diabetes Mellitus who are losing weight with weakness and exhaustion. In such patients, this Homeopathic remedy works as a tonic resulting in improvement of overall health. With Homeopathic medicine Gymnema Sylvestre , the patient puts on weight and feels energetic.

Recent Posts

See All