GLOMERULO NEPHRITIS

INTRODUCTION


  • glomerulo nephritis is inflammation of the glomeruli.

  • glomeruli remove excess fluid , electrolytes and waste from your blood stream and pass them into your urine.

  • Glomerulonephritis can come on suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

  • Glomerulonephritis occurs on its own or as part of another disease, such as lupus or diabetes. Severe or prolonged inflammation associated with glomerulonephritis can damage your kidneys.

CAUSES

  • Bacterial endocarditis Bacteria occasionally can spread through your bloodstream and lodge in your heart, causing an infection of one or more of your heart valves. You're at greater risk of this condition if you have a heart defect, such as a damaged or artificial heart valve. Bacterial endocarditis is associated with glomerular disease, but the connection between the two is unclear.

  • Viral infections Viral infections, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and hepatitis C, can trigger glomerulonephritis.

  • Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis Glomerulonephritis may develop a week or two after recovery from a strep throat infection or, rarely, a skin infection (impetigo). To fight the infection, your body produces extra antibodies that can eventually settle in the glomeruli, causing inflammation.

  • Inflammatory systemic disease - SLE , Systemic vasculitis.


CLASSIFICATION


SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • hematuria

  • Foamy urine due to excess protein (proteinuria)

  • High blood pressure (hypertension)

  • Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen

  • SYMPTOMS OF ACUTE INFECTION : Fever , Body-ache , Vomiting.

  • INSIDIOUS ONSET - Weakness , pallor , Loss of appetite.

COMPLICATION

  • Acute kidney failure Loss of function in the filtering part of the nephron can result in rapid accumulation of waste products. You might need emergency dialysis — an artificial means of removing extra fluids and waste from your blood — typically by an artificial kidney machine.

  • Chronic kidney disease Your kidneys gradually lose their filtering ability. Kidney function that deteriorates to less than 10 percent of normal capacity results in end-stage kidney disease, which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant to sustain life.

  • High blood pressure. Damage to your kidneys and the resulting buildup of wastes in the bloodstream can raise your blood pressure.

  • Nephrotic syndrome With this syndrome, too much protein in your urine results in too little protein in your blood. Nephrotic syndrome can be associated with high blood cholesterol and swelling (edema) of the eyelids, feet and abdomen.

PREVENTION

  • To prevent infections that can lead to some forms of glomerulonephritis, such as HIV and hepatitis, follow safe-sex guidelines and avoid intravenous drug use.

  • Control high blood pressure, which lessens the likelihood of damage to your kidneys from hypertension.

  • Control your blood sugar to help prevent diabetic nephropathy.

DIAGNOSIS

  • Urine test A urinalysis might show red blood cells and red cell casts in your urine, an indicator of possible damage to the glomeruli. Urinalysis results might also show white blood cells, a common indicator of infection or inflammation, and increased protein, which can indicate nephron damage. Other indicators, such as increased blood levels of creatinine or urea, are red flags.

  • Blood tests These can provide information about kidney damage and impairment of the glomeruli by measuring levels of waste products, such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen.

  • Imaging tests If your doctor detects evidence of damage, he or she may recommend diagnostic studies that allow visualization of your kidneys, such as a kidney X-ray, an ultrasound exam or a CT scan.

  • Kidney biopsy This procedure involves using a special needle to extract small pieces of kidney tissue for microscopic examination to help determine the cause of the inflammation. A kidney biopsy is almost always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis.

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

  • ACONITE -Secretion of urine diminished , Micturition difficult and painful , Urine saturated or Mixed with blood , from exposure to dry cold.


  • ALUMINA - Renal pains as from RIDING OVER A ROUGH ROAD ; < by dancing Soreness in kidney as if full of small stones , Red sand in urine , Feel as if sand were pricking in urethra ; Cannot pass urine without much Straining .


  • Apis Mell - Constant dull Pain in both kidneys , On pressure or on stooping ; Burning in urethra before and during micturition ; Urine dark and scanty. Retention of urine , bladder but slightly distended ; frequent desire with passage of only a few drops.


  • Benzoic acid - RENAL PAIN WHICH PENETRATE THE CHEST, when taking a deep inhalation ; sore pain in back , dull pains in kidney , loin stiff; The urinous odor highly intensified and repulsive ; strongly ammoniacal .


  • Berberis - Tensive pain in region of loins and kidneys , on one or both sides across small of back , extending downward into posterior portion of pelvis , of thighs , and even to calves , with FEELING OF STIFFNESS AND LAMENESS , Or swelling of back and lower extremities. Lancinating or tearing pulsative pains in renal region. < When stooping or rising again sitting or lying > When Standing.


  • Cantharis - Violent pains during passage of renal calculi; A paroxysmal CUTTING AND BURNING PAIN IN RENAL REGION , which is very sensitive to slightest touch , alternating with pain in tip of penis ;


  • Helleborus - Nephritis causing dropsical symptoms


  • Napthalin - PYELONEPHRITIS ; terribly offensive odor of decomposing ammoniacal urine.


  • Terebinthina - scanty secretion of dark bloody urine , oedema all over ; Burning and drawing from right kidney to hip and ureters


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