LUNG CANCER

INTRODUCTION #lungcancer #respiratorysystem


  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.

  • People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer, though lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked. The risk of lung cancer increases with the length of time and number of cigarettes you've smoked. If you quit smoking, even after smoking for many years, you can significantly reduce your chances of developing lung cancer.

CAUSE

  • Cigarette smoking

  • Occupational exposure to radioactive gases , asbestos , arsenic , nickel , iron oxide , coal gas manufacture.

  • atmospheric pollution

  • lung disease : risk of lung cancer is more higher who suffered with sever cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis.

CELL TYPE

  • squamous cell carcinoma arises in large airways ,grows relatively slowly.

  • adenocarcinoma is more common in peripheral and is found in more often in non smoker.

  • large cell and anaplastic carcinoma its behavior is intermediate between squamous and small cell carcinoma.

  • small cell carcinoma is highly malignant and highly rapidly growing. its typically arises as a relatively small central airway tumor that metastasizes early to thorasic nodes.

SYMPTOMS

  • Coughing up blood, even a small amount

  • Shortness of breath

  • Chest pain

  • Hoarseness

  • Losing weight without trying

  • Bone pain

  • Headache

SIGNS

  • Finger clubbing (80% cases)

  • palpable supraclavicular nodes

  • hoarseness

  • Horner's syndrome

  • weakness and atrophy of muscle of hand

RISKFACTOR


  • Smoking. Your risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes you smoke each day and the number of years you have smoked. Quitting at any age can significantly lower your risk of developing lung cancer.

  • Exposure to secondhand smoke. Even if you don't smoke, your risk of lung cancer increases if you're exposed to secondhand smoke.

  • Previous radiation therapy. If you've undergone radiation therapy to the chest for another type of cancer, you may have an increased risk of developing lung cancer.

  • Exposure to radon gas. Radon is produced by the natural breakdown of uranium in soil, rock and water that eventually becomes part of the air you breathe. Unsafe levels of radon can accumulate in any building, including homes.

  • Exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Workplace exposure to asbestos and other substances known to cause cancer — such as arsenic, chromium and nickel — can increase your risk of developing lung cancer, especially if you're a smoker.

  • Family history of lung cancer. People with a parent, sibling or child with lung cancer have an increased risk of the disease.

COMPLICATION

  • Shortness of breath. People with lung cancer can experience shortness of breath if cancer grows to block the major airways. Lung cancer can also cause fluid to accumulate around the lungs, making it harder for the affected lung to expand fully when you inhale.

  • Coughing up blood. Lung cancer can cause bleeding in the airway, which can cause you to cough up blood (hemoptysis). Sometimes bleeding can become severe. Treatments are available to control bleeding.

  • Pain. Advanced lung cancer that spreads to the lining of a lung or to another area of the body, such as a bone, can cause pain. Tell your doctor if you experience pain, as many treatments are available to control pain.

  • Fluid in the chest (pleural effusion). Lung cancer can cause fluid to accumulate in the space that surrounds the affected lung in the chest cavity (pleural space). Fluid accumulating in the chest can cause shortness of breath. Treatments are available to drain the fluid from your chest and reduce the risk that pleural effusion will occur again.

  • Cancer that spreads to other parts of the body (metastasis). Lung cancer often spreads (metastasizes) to other parts of the body, such as the brain and the bones. Cancer that spreads can cause pain, nausea, headaches, or other signs and symptoms depending on what organ is affected. Once lung cancer has spread beyond the lungs, it's generally not curable. Treatments are available to decrease signs and symptoms and to help you live longer.

INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS

  • Imaging tests. An X-ray image of your lungs may reveal an abnormal mass or nodule. A CT scan can reveal small lesions in your lungs that might not be detected on an X-ray.

  • Sputum cytology. If you have a cough and are producing sputum, looking at the sputum under the microscope can sometimes reveal the presence of lung cancer cells.

  • Tissue sample (biopsy). A sample of abnormal cells may be removed in a procedure called a biopsy. A biopsy sample may also be taken from lymph nodes or other areas where cancer has spread, such as your liver.

  • bronchoscopy in which your doctor examines abnormal areas of your lungs using a lighted tube that's passed down your throat and into your lungs.

  • Mediastinoscopy in which an incision is made at the base of your neck and surgical tools are inserted behind your breastbone to take tissue samples from lymph nodes is also an option

  • needle biopsy in which your doctor uses X-ray or CT images to guide a needle through your chest wall and into the lung tissue to collect suspicious cells.

PREVENTION

  • Stop smoking

  • Eat a diet full of fruits and vegetables

  • accept healthy life style which also include daily exercise etc.