MAYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

INTRODUCTION

MI is defined as a disease condition which is caused by reduce blood flow in a coronary artery due to atherosclerosis & occlusion of an artery by an embolus or thrombus.

  • MI is irreversible damage of myocardial tissue caused by prolonged ischamia & hypoxia.

  • Myocardial ischemia occurs when blood flow to your heart is reduced, preventing the heart muscle from receiving enough oxygen. The reduced blood flow is usually the result of a partial or complete blockage of your heart's arteries.

CAUSE

Myocardial ischemia occurs when the blood flow through one or more of your coronary arteries is decreased. The low blood flow decreases the amount of oxygen your heart muscle receives.

Myocardial ischemia can develop slowly as arteries become blocked over time. Or it can occur quickly when an artery becomes blocked suddenly.

Conditions that can cause myocardial ischemia include:

  • Coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis). Plaques made up mostly of cholesterol build up on your artery walls and restrict blood flow. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia.

  • Blood clot. The plaques that develop in atherosclerosis can rupture, causing a blood clot. The clot might block an artery and lead to sudden, severe myocardial ischemia, resulting in a heart attack. Rarely, a blood clot might travel to the coronary artery from elsewhere in the body.

  • Coronary artery spasm. This temporary tightening of the muscles in the artery wall can briefly decrease or even prevent blood flow to part of the heart muscle. Coronary artery spasm is an uncommon cause of myocardial ischemia.

Chest pain associated with myocardial infarction can be trigger by:

  • Physical exertion

  • Emotional stress

  • Cold temperatures

  • Cocaine use

  • Eating a heavy or large meal

  • Alcohol

  • smoking

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY


SYMPTOMS

  • Sweating, nausea, vomit and dizziness

  • Extreme weakness and shortness of breath

  • Rapid or irregular heartbeats

  • Discomfort, pressure, heaviness, or pain in the chest, arm, or below the breastbone

  • Discomfort radiating to the back, jaw, throat, or arm

  • Fullness, indigestion, or choking feeling, may feel like heartburn

RISKFACTOR

  • Smoking

  • Sedentary lifestyle

  • Family history of heart disease

  • Postmenopausal women

  • Men over age of 50

  • obesity

PREVENTION

  • avoid smoking

  • Avoid excessive consumption of alcohol

  • Avoid consumption of oily and fatty food

  • Be active and exercise moderately, on a regular basis

  • Have a healthy and balanced diet

INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION

  • Restless

  • Increase heart rate

  • cool and pale skin due to vasoconstriction

  • typical distribution of referred pain

  • shock

ELECTROCARDIOGRAM CHANGES

  • ST segment elevation

  • t wave inversion

  • wide deep q wave

CARDIAC CT SCAN

This test can determine if you have a buildup of calcium in your coronary arteries — a sign of coronary atherosclerosis. The heart arteries can also be seen using CT scanning (coronary CT angiogram).


CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY

A dye is injected into the blood vessels of your heart. Then a series of X-ray images (angiograms) are taken, showing the dye's path. This test gives your doctor a detailed look at the inside of your blood vessels.


HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

  • CACTUS GRANDIFLORIS :

Constriction;   whole body feels as if caged, with wire being twisted tighter and tighter.  Heart feels as if clasped and unclasped rapidly by an iron hand. very acute pains and stitches in heart; pulse feeble, irregular, quick, without strength. Heart weakness of arterio-sclerosis. Violent palpitation; worse lying on left side.

  • CRATAEGUS

Said to have a solvent power upon crustaceous and calcareous deposits in arteries. For arthrosclerosis and cardiac dropsy. Extreme dyspnea on least exertion. Pulse irregular, feeble, intermittent.

  • CIMICIFUGA RACEMOSA

Angina pectoris. Irregular, slow, trembling pulse. Numbness of left arm; feels as if bound to side. Heart’s action ceases suddenly, impending suffocation.

  • CUPRUM METALLICUM

Angina pectoris. Slow pulse; or hard, full and quick. Palpitation, precordial anxiety and pain. Fatty degeneration.

  • LACHESIS

Constricted feeling causing palpitation, with anxiety. Palpitation, with fainting spells, especially during climacteric. Irregular beats.

  • IODUM

Heart feels squeezed,  as if  by an iron hand [Cactus] followed by great weakness and faintness. Palpitation from least exertion. Tachycardia. Myocarditis, painful compression around heart.