PNEUMONIA

Updated: Jul 8

INTRODUCTION

  • Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.

CAUSITIVE AGENT

  • most common are bacteria and viruses but other microorganism may also cause pneumonia .

  • Pneumonia is classified according to the types of microorganism

1. community acquired pneumonia: most common type of pneumonia.

  • Bacteria :The most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in the U.S. is Streptococcus pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia can occur on its own or after you've had a cold or the flu. It may affect one part (lobe) of the lung, a condition called lobar pneumonia.

  • Viruses, includingCOVID-19 :Some of the viruses that cause colds and the flu can cause pneumonia. Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years. Viral pneumonia is usually mild. But in some cases it can become very serious. COVID-19 may cause pneumonia, which can become dangerous and pandemic.

  • Fungi :This type of pneumonia is most common in people with chronic health problems or weakened immune systems, and in people who have inhaled large doses of the organisms.

  • Mycoplasma : Mycoplasma pneumoniae(bacteria like organism) also can cause pneumonia. It typically produces milder symptoms than do other types of pneumonia. Walking pneumonia is an informal name given to this type of pneumonia, which typically isn't severe enough to require bed rest.

2. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Some people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. Hospital-acquired pneumonia can be serious because the bacteria causing it may be more resistant to antibiotics and because the people who get it are already sick. People who are on breathing machines (ventilators), often used in intensive care units, are at higher risk of this type of pneumonia.

3. Aspiration pneumonia

Aspiration pneumonia occurs when you inhale food, drink, vomit or saliva into your lungs. Aspiration is more likely if something disturbs your normal gag reflex, such as a brain injury or swallowing problem, or excessive use of alcohol or drugs.

4. Health care-acquired pneumonia

Health care-acquired pneumonia is a bacterial infection that occurs in people who live in long-term care facilities or who receive care in outpatient clinics, including kidney dialysis centers. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, health care-acquired pneumonia can be caused by bacteria that are more resistant to antibiotics.


SIGN AND SYMPTOMS

  • Chest pain when you breathe or cough

  • Confusion or changes in mental awareness (in adults age 65 and older)

  • Cough, which may produce phlegm

  • Fatigue

  • Fever, sweating and shaking chills

  • Lower than normal body temperature (in adults older than age 65 and people with weak immune systems)

  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea

  • Shortness of breath

RISKFACTOR

  • Being hospitalized : You're at greater risk of pneumonia if you're in a hospital intensive care unit, especially if you're on a machine that helps you breathe (a ventilator).

  • Chronic disease : You're more likely to get pneumonia if you have asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or heart disease.

  • Smoking : Smoking damages your body's natural defenses against the bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia.

  • suppressed immune system : People who have HIV/AIDS, who've had an organ transplant, or who receive chemotherapy or long-term steroids are at risk.

PREVENTION

  • Get vaccinated :Vaccines are available to prevent some types of pneumonia and the flu. Talk with your doctor about getting these shots. The vaccination guidelines have changed over time so make sure to review your vaccination status with your doctor even if you recall previously receiving a pneumonia vaccine.

  • Make sure children get vaccinated : Doctors recommend a different pneumonia vaccine for children younger than age 2 and for children ages 2 to 5 years who are at particular risk of pneumococcal disease. Children who attend a group child care center should also get the vaccine. Doctors also recommend flu shots for children older than 6 months.

  • Require good hygiene: To protect yourself against respiratory infections that sometimes lead to pneumonia, wash your hands regularly or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

  • Don't smoke :smoking damage natural defenses against respiratory infections.

  • Keep your immune system strong : exercise regularly and eat a healthy diet.

INVESTIGATIONS

  • Blood tests

  • Chest X-ray

  • Pulse oximetry

  • Sputum test

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS


  1. Bryonia

  2. Arsenic Album

  3. Phosphorus

  4. Antimonium Tart

  5. Hepar Sulph

  6. Ipecac

  7. Carbo Veg