SCHIZOPHRENIA

INTRODUCTION

  • Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality

abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning.

  • People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. Early treatment may help get symptoms under control before serious complications develop and may help improve the long-term outlook.

  • People with schizophrenia may hear voices other people don’t hear or believe that others are reading their minds, controlling their thoughts, or plotting to harm them. These experiences are terrifying and can cause fearfulness, withdrawal, or extreme agitation.

TYPES

Three Types of Schizophrenia

  1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: This is referred to a medical condition where delusions (mainly persecutory and grandiose) and hallucinations (auditory) are present. Jealousy is also a common trait that may appear in addition to delusions and hallucinations.

  2. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Here, a person shows immobility and unresponsiveness to the outer world. Rigidity and stiffness with an unwillingness to move are also present. Purposeless movements and assuming strange postures are the other traits.

  3. Dis-organised (Hebephrenic) Schizophrenia: Schizophrenia with a flat effect and thought disorder (incoherent or disorganised speech and thoughts) is referred to as Dis-organised Schizophrenia.


CAUSE

  • It's not exactly known .

  • But researchers believe that a combination of genetics, brain chemistry and environment contributes to development of the disorder.

  • Problems with certain naturally occurring brain chemicals, including neurotransmitters called dopamine and glutamate, may contribute to schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies show differences in the brain structure and central nervous system of people with schizophrenia. While researchers aren't certain about the significance of these changes, they indicate that schizophrenia is a brain disease.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION/SYMPTOMS

Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognition), behavior and emotions. Signs and symptoms may vary, but usually involve delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech, and reflect an impaired ability to function.

  • Delusions These are false beliefs that are not based in reality. For example, you think that you're being harmed or harassed; certain gestures or comments are directed at you; you have exceptional ability or fame; another person is in love with you; or a major catastrophe is about to occur. Delusions occur in most people with schizophrenia.

  • Hallucinations These usually involve seeing or hearing things that don't exist. Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. Hallucinations can be in any of the senses, but hearing voices is the most common hallucination.

  • Disorganized thinking (speech) Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be impaired, and answers to questions may be partially or completely unrelated. Rarely, speech may include putting together meaningless words that can't be understood, sometimes known as word salad.

  • Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behavior This may show in a number of ways, from childlike silliness to unpredictable agitation. Behavior isn't focused on a goal, so it's hard to do tasks. Behavior can include resistance to instructions, inappropriate or bizarre posture, a complete lack of response, or useless and excessive movement.

  • Negative symptoms This refers to reduced or lack of ability to function normally. For example, the person may neglect personal hygiene or appear to lack emotion (doesn't make eye contact, doesn't change facial expressions or speaks in a monotone). Also, the person may lose interest in everyday activities, socially withdraw or lack the ability to experience pleasure

RISK FACTOR

  • Having a family history of schizophrenia

  • Some pregnancy and birth complications, such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins or viruses that may impact brain development

  • Taking mind-altering (psychoactive or psychotropic) drugs during teen years and young adulthood

  • Other environment factor

COMPLICATION

  • Suicide, suicide attempts and thoughts of suicide

  • Anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

  • Depression

  • Inability to work or attend school

  • Financial problems and homelessness

  • Social isolation

  • Health and medical problems

  • Being victimized

  • Aggressive behavior, although it's uncommon.

HOMOEOPATHIC THERAPEUTICS

  • Hyoscyamus – paranoid state when the person is convinced that the people are trying to poison him. He refuses food and drink in fear of poison. Jealousy motivates the behaviors including the violent outburst; the person becomes shameless and exposes his/her genitals to anyone, plays with his genitals ceaselessly. Increased sexual desire and behaviors; person imagines a queer kind of paper on the wall and he keeps imaging strange things about the figures. He talks of imaginary things. Illusion of vermin, rats, mice in the room. Picks up bed clothes; makes no complaints.

  • Lachesis – great loquacity; amative, sad in the morning; no desire to mix with the world. Restless and uneasy; does not wish to attend to business; wants to be off somewhere all the time. Jealous; mental labor best performed at night; euthanasia; suspicious; nightly delusion of fire; religious insanity; derangement of the time sense.

  • Anacardium – fixed ideas; hallucinations; thinks he is possessed of two persons or wills; anxiety when walking, as if pursued; profound melancholy and hypochondriasis, with tendency to use violent language. Brain-fag. Impaired memory. Absent mindedness. Very easily offended. Malicious; seems bent on wickedness. Lack of confidence in himself or other. Suspicious; clairaudient, hears voices far away or of the dead; senile dementia; absence of all moral restraint.

  • Stramonium – active variable delirium; raving mania with cold sweat; religious insanity; the talk by others is intolerable; self accusation; loss of reason or speech; strange absurd ideas-thinks himself tall, double, lying crosswise, one half of the body cut off, etc. laughs at night, weeps during day; lascivious talk; limbs feel separated from the body; fear and anxiety on hearing water run; maniac, curses, tears ones clothes with teeth. Violent speech. Exposes the part. Stupid; imbecile; sits silent, eyes on ground, picking at her clothes; wants to kill people or himself; wife thinks husband neglecting her, man thinks his wife faithless.

  • Aurum Met – feeling of self condemnation and utter worthlessness; profound despondency, with thoughts of suicide; talks of committing suicide; great fear of death; peevish and vehement at least contradiction; anthrophobia; mental derangements. Constant rapid questioning without waiting for reply; cannot do things fast enough; over sensitiveness to noise, excitement, confusion.

  •  Belladonna patient imagines that he sees ghosts, hideous faces, animals, and insects. He fears these imaginary things and wants to run away. Patient breaks into fits of laughter or screams; he gnashes his teeth with inclination to bite others; strikes those around him. Patients loses his memory of all things and becomes wild; he wants to run away from all his attendants; aversion to noise, company and light; hot head, cold hands and feet, hydrophobia. Finally the person becomes pale as the stupor increases.